Sociologists in the area of health and mental health examine the phenomena of health and illness, the social organization of health care delivery, and differential access to medical resources.

Some of these scholars focus on how sources of social inequality are transmitted into health and mental health disparities in the population. They examine, for instance, the ways in which socio-economic status, working conditions, gender, or life events can effect health outcomes of different populations. Others focus more on the system of health care decision-making and health care delivery systems. 

This area considers structural, social psychological, stress process, labeling, macro-comparative, and institutional approaches, and studies both health outcomes and health providers.

Faculty members whose area of specialization is the study of Health and Mental Health are: Brent Berry, Cynthia Cranford, Adam GreenAnna Korteweg, Candace Kruttschnitt, Jooyoung  Lee, William Magee, Melissa MilkieMarkus SchaferScott Schieman, Erik Schneiderhan  Lorne Tepperman, Sandy Welsh, and Blair Wheaton.